Thursday, January 10, 2013

List of site of Hazrat Muhammad s.a.w

 Brief History of Hazrat Mohemmed (saww)


“You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah (swt) a beautiful pattern (of conduct)… (33:21)



We were once lost in the gloom of ignorance
Plunged deep in the heart of unawareness
Worshipping dumb idols made of stone
"Who would resurrect us, flesh and bone?"



We would shed blood for petty reasons
Remaining in war throughout the seasons
We would bury baby girls, no mercy did we feel
Nothing seemed cruel to those hearts of steel



And just when it seemed that we were doomed
In front of our eyes our destruction loomed
Allah, the Merciful and the Almighty
Sent us Mohemmed (saww), Guidance, a Mercy


22 April, 571 A.D / 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal, 1st year of the Elephant:


Khatm-al-Anbiya (The Seal of Prophecy) was born in Makkah. The blessed being made his appearance from the person of Sayyida Amina (RA) who diverted totally the very stream of human history who uplifted humanity from the lowest pit of degradation and raised it to the zenith of glory and grandeur who heralded a new message of peace and prosperity for the suffering people and bestowed upon them a panacea for all pains and ills. He was named MOHEMMED “the Praised one” or “he who is glorified”. The new-born was of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh and orphaned before birth. His father Hazrat Abdullah (RA) had died before his birth. According to the custom of Arab noblemen, infants were given into the charge of Bedouin women who suckle and nourish the infants. This blessed child entrusted to Hazrat Halima Sadia (RA) for nourishing.


576 A.D:

He was five years old when Hazrat Halima Sadia (RA) returned him to his mother Sayyida Amina (RA)

 577 A.D:

He was six years old when his mother Sayyida Amina (RA) taken him to Madina for a visit. She wanted him to see the grave of his father. It was a long journey, when they returned and encamped at a place named Abwa, Sayyida Amina (RA) fell ill and in a few days she was died.

In this strange and lonely place, young Mohemmed (saww) saw the last agonies of the nearest and the best-loved person he knew, with no one to share his baffled and piercing grief, except a slave girl named  Hazrat Umm-e-Aiman (RA).The blessed child was fatherless when he left on this journey and motherless when he returned.

577 A.D:

After the burial of Sayyida Amina (RA), Hazrat Umm-e-Aiman (RA) returned young Mohemmed (saww) to his grandfather. Abdul Muttalib took the responsibility of his grandson.

579 A.D:

He was only eight years old when his grandfather died. After his grandfather’s death, his uncle Abu Talib became his guardian. In later years, he was brought up by his uncle.

583 A.D:

At the age of twelve, he went to Syria for trade along with his uncle. He was then growing up and had begun to look at men and things around with a curious and observant eye. In later years, Abu Talib trained him to be a merchant. With the passage of time, he established himself as a man of high moral status and a trustworthy trader, thus he come to be known as Al-Sadiq (the truthful one) & Al-Ameen (the trusted one)

 590 A.D:

At the age of twenty, He took part Harb-ul-Fijar (Sacrilegious War) between the Quraysh and Banu Qais √Član over a trade conflict. He took part in that war on behalf of Quraysh.

590 A.D:

Four months after Harb-ul-Fijar (Sacrilegious War) a peace treaty called Hulf-ul-Fudul (oath of virtue or the pact of chivalry) was renewed by Quraysh aimed protection of trade caravans passing Makkah, being supported by Hazrat Mohemmed (saww).

 March, 595 A.D / Zilhaj:

At the age of twenty five, he became the business partner of Sayyida Khadija (RA) a wealthy and prestigious lady of Makkah. She requested him to take her trade articles of merchandise to Syria and he accepted this offer. His visit to Syria proved very successful. Sayyida Khadija (RA) was so stuck by his good sense, his honesty and his blameless ways that she proposed him by her close friend named Nafeesa. He accepted her proposal after the consultation with his uncle.

 September, 595 A.D:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Khadeja (RA). He was twenty five then and Sayyida Khadeja (RA) was forty. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) had now a home of his own and no further worries regarding his living. Sayyida Khadeja (RA) played a vital role in prophet’s life; she was honored to be the first wife of the prophet and during her life time, the only one. (She spent 25 years with prophet) she bore Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) two sons named Sayyidna Qasim and Sayyidna Abdullah (who both died in infancy) and four daughters named Sayyida Zainab (RA) Sayyida Ruqayya (RA) Sayyida Umm-e Kulsoom and Sayyida Fatima (RA).

598 A.D:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) begun to spend long hours in solitary meditation into a cave he had found in mountain of Hira nearby. Here he pondered and meditated in long and lonely vigils. His periods of loneliness became more frequent and his vigils lengthened as he approached the age of forty.

599 A.D:

At the age of twenty eight, the first baby was born who was named Qasim (RA). This child died in infancy.

 600 A.D:

At the age of thirty, his first daughter Sayyida Zainab (RA) was born.

 603 A.D:

At the age of thirty three, his second daughter Sayyida Ruqayya (RA) was born.

 604 A.D:

At the age of thirty four, his third daughter Sayyida Umm-e-Kulsoom (RA) was born.

 605 A.D:

At the age of thirty five, he took part in rebuilding of Khana-e-kaaba and settled a quarrel over the placing of Hajar-e-Aswad (Black stone) and saved Quraysh from a certain blood shed. For their idolatry and pagan customs, the Arabs still revered the Kaaba as the holy of holies. In the Kaaba there is a black stone held to be particularly sacred. When they decided to rebuild Kaaba, there was furious wrangling over the Hajar-e-Aswad (Black stone) whoever was chosen to put it back into its place in the structure, it was felt, would acquire a pride and precedence that would humble all competitors. Every chief of Quraysh therefore, claimed the honour. The quarrel waxed hot and bloodshed seemed imminent. At last they asked Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) to arbitrate and settle the issue among them. He spread out his wrap on the earth, placed the holy stone in the middle and asked all the claimants to lift the wrap and carry it to the Kaaba. Then he picked up the Hajar-e-Aswad (Black stone) himself and fixed it in its place. Thus much bloodshed was avoided.           

605 A.D:

At the age of thirty five, his fourth daughter Sayyida Fatima (RA) was born.

12 February 610 A.D / Ramadan-ul-Mubarak:

The beginning of the Prophet’s mission; at the age of forty, he began to receive the revelation of Quran in a cave (Hira) at the summit of a mountain (Jabal-e-Noor) outside Makkah. Where the prophet (saww) was engaged in meditation on one of the last nights of the month of Holy Ramadan, Gabriel (A.S) appeared to him with the first revelation the beginning of verse 96:

 “Proclaim! (Or read!) In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created,

Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood,      

Proclaim! (Or read!) And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,          

He who taught (the use of) the pen,    

Taught man that which he knew not.” (96:1-5)


Gabriel (A.S) disappeared then and Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) came home, strangely troubled, and said to his wife:

“Cover me up, Khadeja, cover me up!”
After a while, he became calmer and spoke his wife of the divine commendments revealed to him. Sayyida Khadija (RA) comforted him:


“Fear not, my noble one, but rejoice.

 God will not forsake you in this affair nor expose you to shame.

 For you are good and kind a truthful. You are hospitable to the passing stranger;

 You aid and comfort the poor and the lowly, and support the virtuous in righteous deeds.”


Sayyida Khadija (RA), without a moment’s hesitation, accepted the truth of his words. She thus became the first to believe that the prophet (saww) had indeed been charged with a divine mission, followed by Sayyidna Ali (RA) his cousin, and Hazrat Zayd b. Harith (RA) his freed servant. The first convert from outside the family circle was Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) a respected merchant and best friend of Mohemmed (saww). After this, quietly and unobtrusively, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) went round preaching, relating to whomsoever would listen or seemed likely to accept, the message and the commandments he had received. Thus three years passed. These three years produced only forty followers for his faith. These forty are known as Al-Sabiqun-al-Awwalun (the First and foremost)

614 A.D / 4th Nabawi:


At the beginning of the fourth year of revelation, Devine message came:



“And admonish thy nearest kinsmen” (26:214)


To act upon this Devine order, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) arranged a feast in which he invited his family members, his clan Banu Hashim. The feast is to be known as Dawah-Dhul-Asheerah (the feast of the nearest kinsmen). At the end of this feast, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) declared that there is no god but Allah (swt) who chose him as his messenger. The meantime Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) asked the guests to give up the paganism and to worship the one and the true God. His family members listened to him with growing anger; some of them shouted abuses at him when he insulted their gods. Abu Lahab one of his uncles who later became a violent enemy of Islam was particularly harsh in his words. By and large the Banu Hashim paid no heed to his words, nor did they give them too much importance.


614 A.D / 4th Nabawi:


Few days after Dawah-Dhul-Asheerah (the feast of the nearest kinsmen) the Devine message came:



“Whatever is commanded and ordained, proclaim it openly.” (15:94)



So Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) climbed the hill of safa and called out to the people of Makkah. When a goodly crowd had collected, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) proclaimed the divine message openly, he first of all swore to his own truthfulness and good faith. Then he asked them to abjure false gods, to worship no one except the one true God, to abstain from promiscuity and lewdness, to live in purity and virtue to treat one another with kindness and consideration, to forsake all suppressions and all pagan practices. The people of Makkah listened to him with growing anger; they shouted abuses at him when he insulted their gods. Abu Lahab condemned him as he did earlier and said angrily:



“O, Mohemmed! Your hands were Perish, had you collected us to listen this?”



From that day, Abu Lahab became the most violent enemy of Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) and his followers. Allah (swt) revealed a complete Surah (verse) in condemnation of Abu Lahab. Allah (swt) says:



“Perish the hands of the Abu Lahab! (Father of Flame) Perish he!        

No profit to him from all his wealth, and all his gains!        

Burnt soon will he be in a Fire of Blazing Flame!    

His wife shall carry the (crackling) wood as fuel!    

A twisted rope of palm-leaf fiber round her (own) neck!” (111:1-5)



By and large the people of Makkah did not pay any heed to his call and refused to give it too much importance. They dismissed his sermon as the passing whim of a temporarily obsessed.



614 A.D / 4th Nabawi:

At the age of forty four, his second son was born who was named Abdullah or Tahir (RA). He died in infancy.



615 A.D / Rajab, 5th Nabawi:

Islam attracted some support but provoked a great deal of hostility from infidels who felt their interests threatened. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) observed the cruelties and hardships visited on his followers. At last he advised his followers to leave their homes and migrate to Abyssinia (Modern-day Ethiopia). Nijashi (Negus) The king of Abyssinia of that time was very merciful and upright; he permitted Muslims to stay in his country and to perform their religious rites according to their belief, despite attempts by infidels of Makkah to turn him against the Muslims.



615 A.D / 5th Nabawi:

Two notable chiefs of Quresh, Sayyidna Hamza (RA) and Sayyidna Umar (RA), embraced Islam. The day Sayyidna Umar (RA) did so, the Muslims felt so elated that they offered their prayers openly and in congregation.   



616 A.D / 6th Nabawi:

When the infidels of Makkah felt that they were unable to stop the progress of Islam, the tribal leaders of Quraysh put their heads together and finally they decided upon a scheme. They showed the unity against prophet’s clan Banu Hashim and banned the whole family. They drew up a joint proclamation and hung it upon the walls of Kaaba. It read,



“It has been agreed that henceforth no one in Makkah shall have any dealings or transact any business with Mohemmed b. Abdullah, his family or his followers. No one shall sell food to them nor visit them, nor converse with them. This ban will continue until Banu Hashim hand him over to us to be treated as he deserves.”



This social boycott was so rigidly enforced that Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) and his followers were forced to leave the town and find shelter in a nearby valley called Shib-e- Abi Talib (valley of Abu Talib). This boycott continued for three years.

619 A.D / 10 Nabawi:

Finally, the social boycott came to an end, and Muslims, along with the prophet Mohemmed (saww) returned back to the Makkah.



619 A.D / 10 Nabawi:

Immediately after the end of social boycott, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) experienced the bitter phase of his life when Abu Talib his loving and beloved uncle and protector, head of Banu Hashim died. In the same year, a few weeks later, Hazrat Mohemmed’s (saww) beloved wife, Sayyida Khadeja (RA) also passed away after a tender and faithful association of twenty-five years. Thus Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) lost two of his best beloved and nearest ones within the short span of a few days. So this year came to be known as Aam-ul-Huzn (the Year of sorrow)



619 A.D / 10 Nabawi:

At the age of forty nine, he married Sayyida Sawdah (RA) aged thirty-five; the widow of a late companion of Prophet Mohemmed (saww) named Hazrat Sakran b.Amr (RA).



619 A.D / 10 Nabawi:

Mohemmed (saww) married the daughter of Abu Bakr (RA), Sayyida Ayesha (RA). She was to be the Prophet’s favorite wife, and a presence that kindled his intuition and sense of spiritual immense.  Sayyida Ayesha (RA) had a sound knowledge of Hadith and Sunnah that’s why towards the end of her life; she was often consulted on matters of Hadith and Sunnah.



619 A.D / 10 Nabawi:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) went to Taif (a town, sixty miles away from Makkah) for preaching, the people of Taif treated him even more brutally than did the people of Makkah. They set their bullies and street urchins after him, who abused and mocked him and pelted him with stones. Wounded and hurt, his shoes filled with the blood dripping from his cloths, he took shelter in an orchard and sitting under the shade of a tree.  His greatness lies in the fact, instead to curse the people of Taif, he asked Allah (swt) to forgive them.  



620 A.D / 10 Nabawi:

On the return journey from Taif, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) recited the Quran at night in Nakhlah (Oasis) seven passing Jinn (Genie) stopped and listened.



22 March, 620 A.D / 27th Rajab, 10 Nabawi:

The incident of Mairaj (A Sacred Night journey) took place in which the prophet was taken in one night from Makkah to Jerusalem, mounted on the steed Al-Buraq (the miraculous steed)  brought to him by the Angel Gabriel (A.S) From the temple Mount the prophet accompanied by Gabriel (A.S) ascends to the Divine Presence.



22 March, 620 A.D / 27th Rajab, 10 Nabawi:

The same night (at Mairaj) five Ritual prayers were made incumbent on Muslims which must be performed at five appointed times each days.



620 A.D / 10 Nabawi:

Six pilgrims of the tribe of Khazraj of Yathrib (Madina) belong to an agricultural community to the north, came to Makkah. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) preached them and later on they accepted Islam.



621 A.D / 11 Nabawi:

The first Aqabah covenant (oath of allegiance) took place. Twelve men of the tribes of Khazraj and Aws came in the presence of Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) and took the oath of allegiance.



622 A.D / 12 Nabawi:

The second Aqabah covenant (oath of allegiance) occurred. Seventy two men came in the presence of Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) and accepted Islam. They pledged to defend the Prophet and promised to be with Islamic Movement whatever the circumstances will be.



12 September, 622 A.D / 27th Safar.ul.Muzaffar, 13Nabawi:

At the age of fifty two, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) decided to migrate from Makkah to Madina.  The position of Muslims had become untenable, but they were saved by an invitation form the people of Yathrib, who wanted Mohemmed (saww) to come and arbitrate in the feuds the racked their community. At last Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) left for Madina accompanied by Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA). During this journey they took shelter in a cave called Saur, some distance from Makkah. For three days they hide in the cave, the pursuers hovering around. One day a band came so near the mouth of the cave that their voices could be distinctly heard inside. Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA), greatly troubled in heart, said to Prophet Mohemmed (saww):



“There are only two of us and they are many. What if we are discovered?”.



Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) replied,



“Fear not, there are not two of us but three, and the third amongst us is God.”



16 September, 622 A.D / 1st Rabi-ul-Awwal 13th Nabawi:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) and his companion Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) left the cave Saur and left for Madina.



27 September, 622 A.D / 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal 1st Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) arrived at the city of Madina. He was accorded a red carpet welcome by the people of Yathrib; when the Holy prophet entered the city, the daughters of the Ansar (helpers) welcomed him with the recitation of these words;



“Tala-ul-badr-u-Alaina-min-saniyyat-el-wadaaie”

(The moon has shone upon us from the two hills of Wida’a)



The name of the town was changed to Madina, the city of prophet (saww) There he delivered his first Friday sermon and led the prayer. The year in which the migration from Makkah to Madina took place was a turning point of prophet’s life and milestone of Islamic history called hijrah. The hijrah marked the beginning of the Muslim era and the beginning of Islamic calendar as well.



622 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Masjid-e-Quba (Mosque of the Quba) was built at three miles away from Madina. Quba infect a village outside Madina where the prophet first arrived after his migration from Makkah, and here he built a mosque later known as Masjid-ul-Taqwa (the mosque of Reverence). This is considered to be the first mosque in Islam.   



622 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Beginning of Azan (the call to prayer); in addition to the call, mosques would display a white flag as a signal that the prayer was being called, at night, a lamp was lit on the top of the minaret to serve the same purpose.



622 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) set a relationship between Muhajriin (Refugees of Makkah) and Ansar (Citizens of Madina or Helpers). This is to be known as Muakhat. In fact most of the Muhajriin (Refugees of Makkah) were prosperous and well-to-do, but now they were all equally destitute. As a preliminary step, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) enjoined the Ansar (Citizens of Madina or helpers) to adopt as brothers their co-religionists namely Muhajriin (Refugees of Makkah) to share with them like their own kith and kin whatever they possessed, in prosperity and in want. These bonds endured and Muhajriin were soon absorbed into the community.     



622 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Masjid-e-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) started to build in Madina. It is the second most venerable mosque in Islam, after the Masjid-ul.Haram (the grand Mosque of Makkah). The first mosque on the site of today’s structure was supported by the trunks of standing palm trees that had grown there, and Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) himself worked on its construction. In its time, Masjid-e-Nabawi was the principal mosque in Islam, where the prophet spent much of his time with his companions.      



623 A.D / 1st Hijri:

In Madina there was a large Jewish population with whom Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) negotiated an agreement in order to adjust their relation with his followers. This is to be known as Mithaq-e-Madina (Charter of Madina). The salient features of that agreement were as follows:



* Every tribe and clan would manage its affairs and settle its own disputes according to its own law.

* No party in Madina, either Muslim or Jewish would directly negotiate any treaty or agreement at any time with any outside party rising beyond the precincts of Madina.

* In case of war out side Madina no citizen of Madina would be compelled to join either of the warring parties.

* In all disputes in Madina, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) would be the final arbitrating authority. 



623 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) was privileged the right through divine revelation to fight for defensive reasons.



623 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) led the very first battle of Islamic history, named Viden.



623 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Battle of Sawwan took place.



623 A.D / 1st Hijri:

Battle of Dhul-Asheerah took place.



624 A.D: / 1st Hijri:

Hazrat Salman Farsi, the Persian (RA) embraced Islam.



16 March, 624 A.D / 17 Ramadan-ul-Mubarak, 2nd Hijri:

The battle of Badr was fought. Badr a valley lies 90 miles away to the south of Madina, where that battle took place, after the name of that valley (the battle front) the battle is to be known as “the battle of Badr”. It was the first major encounter with infidels and Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) led the 313 devotees. That was a milestone not only in the Islamic history but also in the world history, when a Small army of just three hundred Muslims defeated a strong force of more than one thousand infidels of Makkah. That was the battle in which Angles led by Gabriel (A.S) joined the Muslims. That was the battle in which notable chiefs of Quraysh and bitter enemies of Islam like Ut,ba, Shai,ba, Waleed, Umayyah  and Abu-Jahl  (father of ignorance, the worst enemy of Islam) were put to death by a small but an enthusiastic Muslim army. Abu-Jahl’s death was an exemplary event of that battle when he was put to death by two young boys of Madina, named Ma,uz and Ma,az. At the beginning of the battle Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) threw a handful of pebbles at the infidels of Makkah, saying:



“Abased be those faces”.



A later revelation of Quran said that:



“It was not he, but Allah (swt) who threw” (8:17)



Another secret of the victory of Muslim force lies in the fact that they fought as a disciplined body with an order of battle. To this the Quran says:



“Allah (swt) loves those who fight in Allah’s (swt) way in ranks” (61:4)



The Muslim casualties were fourteen, those of the infidels seventy among few bitter enemies of Islam were killed, the rest being held for ransom. The battle amounted to be an astonishing victory for the Muslims, and that gained them political credibility for their cause among other tribes and soon they emerged as one of the strong forces of the world.        



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

The fasting of the month of Ramadan was made mandatory on Muslims. The prophet (saww) recommended fasting as a spiritual discipline.





February, 624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

During the prayer, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) got the revelation of changing the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Makkah and congregation followed the suit, so Makkah was declared as new Qiblah (Prayer Direction) for Muslims. The mosque where the Prophet turned towards Makkah during the prayers is now called Masjid-ul-Qiblatain (Mosque of the two prayer direction)



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Battle of Salim took place.



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Muslims got the felicity of celebrating Eid-ul-Fitar. At the mean time they got the divine order to pay the Fitrah (the Amount at the feast of fast breaking). It is Special alms (Zakat) called Zakat-ul-Fitr, it is consist of a measure of grain for every member of the household (or its equivalent in value) it is given directly to the poor.



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Zakat was made mandatory on Muslims. Term “Zakat” is taken to mean “purification” from the verb“Zaka” which signifies “to thrive”, “to be wholesome” and “to be pure”. The giving up of a portion of the wealth one may possess, in excess of what is needed for sustenance, to “purify” or legitimize what one retains. It is one of the five pillars of Islam and is in effect a tax on one’s possession. It may be paid directly to the poor as alms.     



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) tied the knot of his beloved daughter Sayyida Fatima (RA) with his cousin Sayyidna Ali (RA).



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Battle of Bnu Qaynuqa took place.



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Battle of Sawweq took place.



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Battle of Ghatafan took place.



624 A.D / 2nd Hijri:

Battle of Behrain took place.



625 A.D / 3rd Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Hafsah (RA) the 21 year-old daughter of Sayyidna Umar (RA). She was the widow of Hazrat Khunays (RA), who had martyred in a battle.



21 March, 625 A.D / 6th Shawwal-ul-Mukarram, 3rd Hijri:

Battle of Uhud took place. Uhud on the western outskirts of Madina is a hill with a plain stretching before it. Infidels of Makkah were gathered there to avenge their defeat at Badr. On the morning of the battle 300 men of Muslim force under Abdullah b. Ubayy (the leader of the hypocrite’s faction in Madina) deserted the prophet as the troops rode out of the city, leaving the Muslims only 700 strong. Nevertheless, the Muslims were close to victory when forty archers whom Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) had stationed on the hill to remain there and guard the flank, saw that the Muslims were wining, most of them abandoned their post, this left the way open for a counter-attack by a detachment of the infidels cavalry. The ten Muslim archers who had remained faithful to their orders proved too small number to hold the cavalry and were cut down. Caught by the break through of the infidel’s cavalry, Muslim force was routed and the prophet (saww) himself was wounded momentarily knocked unconscious. The rumor of prophet’s death caused the infidels to withdraw thinking the battle won. When the infidels learned that the prophet had survived it was too late to launch a counter-attack.

In this battle Sayyidna Hamzah (RA) b. Abdul Muttalib an uncle of the prophet and one of Islam’s most formidable warriors, was martyred speared by a slave named wahshi. Hind, daughter of a slain chief of Quaish at Badr, thirsting to revenge her father and her kinsman killed at Bard, had set her slave to this exploit with promises of reward. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) greatly mourned Sayyidna Hamzah (RA), foremost of the martyrs of Uhud.



625 A.D / 3rd Hijri:

Battle of Hamar-ul-Asad took place.



625 A.D / 3rd Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Zainab b. Khuzaymah (RA), a widow of Hazrat Ubaydah (RA), who had martyred in the battle of Badr. She was known as the Umm-ul- Masakin (the mother of the poor) for her generosity. She died not long after the marriage.



625 A.D / 4th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) led the Muslims in the battle of Banu Nadeyr.



625 A.D / 4th Hijri:

Wine was declared prohibited in Islam.



625 A.D / 4th Hijri:

Battle of Dat-ul-Rajee took place.



625 A.D / 4th Hijri:

Battle of Dat-ul-Raqa took place.



625 A.D / 4th Hijri:

Battle of Beir-e-Mauna took place.



626 A.D / 4th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Umm-e-Salmah (RA) the widow of Hazrat Abu Salmah (RA), who had martyred in the battle of Uhud.



626 A.D / 4th Hijri:

Battle of Badr-ul-Ukhra took place.



626 A.D / 5th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) led the Muslims in the battle of Daumat-ul-Jandal.



626 A.D / 5th Hijri:

Battle of Banu Mustaliq took place.



626 A.D / 5th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Juwayriyyah b.Harith (RA) daughter of the chief of the Banu Mustailq, who thus became allied to the prophet (saww).



627 A.D / 5th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Hazrat Zainab b. Jahash (RA), the divorced wife of his freed man Hazrat Zayd b. Harith (RA).



627 A.D / 5th Hijri:

The order of observing Pardah (The covering of the head, face and body by women in public) was revealed.



23 March, 627 A.D / 28th Shawwal-ul-Mukarram, 5th Hijri:

Madina is besieged by infidels of Makkah: Battle of Khandaq (the Trench) also called Ahzab (War of the Confederates) took place. The Quraysh had made an alliance with certain desert tribes, the Bannu-Ghatafan and Jews of Banu Nadir who had emigrated from Madina to Khyber. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) ordered his devotees a defensive trench to be dug around Madina, a strong hitherto completely unknown to the Arabs but used by the Sassanid (people of Persia) it was Salman Farsi, the Persian, who gave the idea to the prophet, the trench took six days of feverish work to dig only a week before the attack. Army of the infields’ cavalry was stopped by the trench, they attempted to cross the trench but not succeeded, the attackers laid siege for two weeks. At last the Quraysh abandoned the siege and left precipitously the most notable casualty on the Muslim side was Hazrat Saad b. Muadh, chief of one of the clans of the tribe of Aws.



627 A.D / 5th Hijri:

Battle of Banu Quraiza took place.



627 A.D / 6th Hijri:

Battle of Banu Liyhan took place.



March, 628 A.D / Dhu-ul-Qa, dah, 6th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) signed the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah with infidels of Makkah.  By virtue of The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, the infidels of Makkah had to agree to compromise with the Muslims. Though, few terms of that treaty were seemed completely against the Muslim’s interests but for the long run point of view, they were in favor of Islam and prophet (saww) knew it. Afterwards, the glad tiding of a manifest Victory was revealed which confirmed the prophet’s (saww) vision and sagacity:



“Verily, we have granted thee a manifest Victory” (48:1)

Hudaybiyyah is a place on the road from Jeddah to Makkah; just outside the Haram (restricted precinct) Here Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) stopped and awaited the outcome of events when prevented from making the pilgrimage by the infidels of Makkah. A Quranic revelation (48:27) declared the Prophet would pray at Makkah. He set out to perform pilgrimage at Makkah with a party of about 1000 men unarmed and in Iharam (pilgrim dress). The Quraysh stopped the party at Hudaybiyyah, about ten miles from Makkah. Sayyidna Uthman (RA) was sent to negotiate with infidels when he did not return at the expected time, many thought that he had been killed or captured and that all was lost. In this moment of peril, the prophet’s followers individually made a new oath of fealty to the prophets known as Bait-ur-Ridwan (the pact of felicity). Sayyidna Mohemmed (saww) himself represented the absent Sayyidna Uthman (RA) by proxy in this oath. Sayyidna Uthman (RA) returned with some infidels. The Quraysh agreed to a truce, “the peace of Hudaybiyah”. Under the conditions of this treaty the prophet would be allowed to make the pilgrimage not then but in the following year. Makkah would be emptied for three days for the Muslim pilgrims. The peace also stipulated a truce for ten years, that those who were not free but subjects or dependents of the Quraysh and who defected from the pagans to the Muslim would be returned to the Quraysh by the Muslims, whereas those who were subject to the Muslims and who defected from the Muslims to the Quraysh would not be returned by the Quraysh. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) performed the pilgrimage the following year. The testimony of faith declaring that there is no god but Allah (swt) and Mohemmed (saww) is the messenger of Allah (swt) rang out in the valley of Makkah. The Quraysh camped on the hill of Abu Qubays, heard it, a portent of the coming triumph of Islam. Other effects were equally far-reaching. The desert tribes had seen the infidels of Makkah dealing with the Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) as an equal and as a sovereign, and many turned to the new religion. Shortly thereafter, in the year 630 taking an incident between an allied tribe and the infidels of Makkah as a breach of the truce, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) marched upon Makkah and conquered it, meeting almost no resistance.



628 A.D / 6th Hijri:

Marriage with infidels declared forbidden through divine revelation.



628 A.D / 6th Hijri:

Sayyida Rehana b. Shamun (RA) entered the household of Hazrat Mohemmed (saww). She was originally Jewish and came from Banu Quraiza.



628 A.D / 6th Hijri:

Sayyida Maria Qibtia, the Copt (RA) entered the household of Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) who was originally a slave-girl who was sent to the presence of Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) as gift from Muqawqis, the Byzantine viceroy ruling the Copts in Egypt. She bore Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) a son, Sayyidna Ibrahim (RA) who died eighteen months after his birth.



628 A.D / 6th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Umm-e-Habiba (RA) the daughter of Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Quraysh and widow of Ubayd (who had been converted to Christianity in Abyssinia, where he died).







May, 628 A.D / Muharram-ul-Haram, 7th Hijri:

Messengers are sent to Muqawaqis, ruler of Egypt, Kisra of Persia, Qaisar (Heraclius) of Byzantium, the rulers of the Yemen and others, calling them to Islam. 



June, 628 A.D/30Muharram-ul-Haram,7th Hijri:

Battle of Khayber took place. Shortly after the Muslims returned from Hudaybiyyah, they learnt that the Jews of Khayber were planning another attack on Madina to avenge their defeat. Their agents, it was reported, were inciting other tribes as well. To forestall these moves the Muslims marched on Khayber with sixteen hundred men and the Khayber fortress, reputed to be impregnable, was stormed and conquered by Sayyidna Ali (RA) after a siege lasting twenty days. As a result the Jewish citadels of Khayber were conquered, and the growing strength of the Muslims became apparent. 



628 A.D / 7th Hijri:

To avenge their defeat at Khayber, the Jews made a conspiracy against Muslims; they planned to kill Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) and some of his companions. For implementing the conspiracy, the wife of a Jewish notable slain in the war of Khayber, invited Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) and some of his companions to a meal in her house. The food was poisoned. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) had barely tasted the food when he suspected treachery and stopped eating but one of his companions, Hazrat Bishr b. Bara, died of poisoning. According to the law of the time the whole Jewish community should have been held accountable for this treacherous crime and punished accordingly but Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) held his hand and only the guilty woman was punished.        



628 A.D / 7th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Safya (RA), the seventeen-year-old widow of Kinanah, chief of the Jews of Khaybar who had been killed at Khaybar. Sayyida Safya (RA) accepted Islam and married the prophet on the return journey to Madina.



628 A.D / 7th Hijri:

The group of Muslims who migrated to Syria returned to Makkah.



628 A.D / 7th Hijri:

Battle of Wadi-ul-Qura took place.



April, 629 A.D / Dhu-ul-Qa, dah 7th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) with two thousand of his trusted followers performed Umra-tul-Qaza (pilgrimage) as agreed in the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, and Hazrat Bilal (RA) called the prayer (Azan) from the top of the Kaaba, thus the Kalimah-e-Shahadah (the testimony of the faith) echoes in the valley of  Makkah, while the Quraysh watch and listen from the hill of Abu Qubays. The Muslims scrupulously observed the terms of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, even though they were now strong enough to dictate their own terms if they so desired.     



629 A.D / 7th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) married Sayyida Maymuna (RA) after the pilgrimage to Makkah. She was the sister in law of Prophet’s uncle Hazrat Abbas, and a widow.

629 A.D / 8th Hijri:

Hazrat Khalid b. Walid (RA) and Hazrat Amr b.Al-Aas (RA) embraced Islam.



629 A.D / 8th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) led the Muslim force in battle of Mauta. That was the battle in which Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) addressed Hazrat Khalid b. Walid (RA) by the name of Saif-Ullah (the Sword of Allah) which then became his honorary title.



12 January, 630 A.D / 20 Ramadan-ul-Mubarak, 8th Hijri:  

Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was nearly two years old. The infidels of Makkah now violated one of the terms of the treaty. A tribe allied to them attacked a tribe allied to the Muslims, causing much damage to life and property. The aggrieved tribe brought their complaint to Hazrat Mohemmed (saww). He wrote to the infidels of Makkah and demanded the according to the term of the treaty  they should either indemnify the aggrieved tribe for their losses or break their alliance with the aggressor tribe and let the Muslims deal with it as thought best. Alternatively they should terminate the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. The infidels of Makkah chose the latter and the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was thus terminated. They soon realized how hasty and unwise they had been and sent Abu Sufyan as their envoy to Madina to make amends. It was too late. Muslims were to be fed up of the infidels of Makkah and their patience worn out at last, decided to pull out this thorn from their side. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) ordered his devotees to march towards the Makkah. A large force was accordingly assembled and it marched towards the Makkah. When they approached the end of their journey and Makkah was a few miles away, they halted and encamped for the night. Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) commanded that each group should light a bright fire to give the infidels an idea of their strength. The infidels, he hoped would not give battle once they knew that resistance was hopeless as always he was anxious to avoid unnecessary blood shed and so no blood was shed. The infidels of Makkah gave in, their leader Abu Sufyan presented himself before Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) as their envoy, and accepted Islam. When Abu Sufyan returned to Makkah he made the following proclamation on behalf of the prophet Mohemmed (saww)



“Whoever takes refuge in the house of Abu Sufyan shall be forgiven

Whoever remains indoors and keeps his door shut shall be forgiven.

Whoever enters the Kaaba shall be forgiven.

Whoever goes about his business unarmed shall go in peace.”



No one was forced to change his faith or made to accept the faith of the conquerors as pre-conditions for personal security. Every one was given quarter on one simple condition-peaceful submission. So no resistance was seen then Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) entered in Makkah and conquered it without shedding a single drop of blood.

The Kaaba was purified of idols by Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) himself. On that occasion, Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) was reciting these verses:



"Truth has (now) arrived, and Falsehood perished,

For Falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish." (17:81)



Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) announced general pardon for everyone and said:



“I have today abolished all customs and all rituals of the days of jahillya (ignorance) except that arrangements for the distribution of water to the pilgrimage from the holy well of zamzam (pure water) will continue as before.

O, people of Quraysh! Take heed: Allah (swt) has destroyed your factionalism of the days of jahillya, and your pride in blood and lineage. All men are equal. All are descended from the same ancestor, Adam. And Adam was nothing but dust.”



Thus the holy city of Makkah was now Hazrat Mohemmed’s (saww) undisputed domain, his greatness lies in the fact he won Makkah, his native city, without any actual war or blood shed.



1st February, 630 A.D /11 Shawwal-ul-Mukarram, 8th Hijri:

Battle of Hunain took place. Immediately after the conquest of Makkah the Muslims fought a battle against the allied tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif at a point between Makkah and Taif. During the battle field Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) prayed:



“Allah (swt)! I ask of thee thy promise.”



Suddenly the tide of battle turned. Afterwards the revelation came:



“Assuredly Allah (swt) did help you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain: Behold! Your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in retreat. But Allah (swt) did pour His calm on the Messenger and on the Believers, and sent down forces which ye saw not: He punished the Unbelievers; thus doth He reward those without Faith. Again will Allah, after this, turn (in mercy) to whom He will: for Allah (swt) is Oft-forgiving, most Merciful. (9:25-27)



The Muslim victory in this battle persuaded the desert tribes to accept Islam and shortly thereafter the rebel tribe of Taif also surrendered and entered Islam.



3rd February, 630 A.D/ 13 Shawwal-ul-Mukarram, 8th Hijri:

Battle of Taif took place.



630 A.D / 8th Hijri:

Majority of the people of Hawazin tribe embraced Islam.



630 A.D / 9th Hijri:

The beginning of the year of Deputation; when tribes from all over Arabia accepted Islam.



630 A.D / 9th Hijri:

The Department for alms and charity was established.



630 A.D / 9th Hijri:

Sayyida Maria Qibtiya (RA) bore Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) a son, named Ibrahim (RA).



October, 630 A.D / Rajab-ul-Murajab, 9th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) led a military expedition to Tabuk in North Arabia. It was the last battle who led by Hazrat Mohemmed (saww).



630 A.D / 9th Hijri:

Usury was declared prohibited in Islam.



630 A.D / 9th Hijri:

Tribes Hamadan, Banu Asad and Banu Abbas embraced Islam.



631 A.D / 9th Hijri:

Hajj (the pilgrimage) that year was led by Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA). Hajj was made obligatory for Muslims who are affluent enough.



631 A.D / 9th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohammed (saww) sent Sayyidna Ali (RA) on a mission to Yemen.



631 A.D / 10th Hijri:

Tribe Ghassan embraced Islam.



27January, 632 A.D / 10th Hijri:

Mohemmed’s (saww) son Ibrahim (RA) died at the age of eighteen months.



632 A.D / 10th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) set off for Makkah to perform the last Hajj.



9 March, 632 A.D / 9th Zilhaj, 10th Hijri:

The “Farewell Pilgrimage” while delivering his last sermon at plain of Arafat to the multitude Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) received the final revelation of Quran. In his last sermon at Arafat, he mounted his camel and said:



“O, people, listen carefully to my words for I may not be among you next year, nor ever address you again from this spot.



O, people, verily Allah (swt) has made inviolable for you each other’s blood and each other’s property, until you meet your lord, even as he has made inviolable this, your day, in this your land, in this your month.



O, people, women have rights over you just as you have rights over them. Be good to them.



O, people, you may soon have to appear before your lord and answer for your deeds. So, beware! Do not go astray after I am gone.



O, people, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born.



O, people, listen to me in earnest! Worship your Allah; say your prayers, fast during the month of Ramadan, and give of your wealth in charity. All Muslims, free or enslaved, have the same responsibilities. None is higher than other unless he is higher in virtue.



O, people, feed your slaves as you feed yourselves. Do not oppress them nor usurp their rights.”



During the sermon of Arafat the last passage of Holy Quran was revealed:



“Today the unbelievers have despaired of your religion, therefore fear them not, but fear you me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed my blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam for your religion. (5:4-5)



Thus Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) turned his blessed face to heaven and said:



“My Lord! Have I delivered aright the Massage I was charged with and fulfilled my calling?”



And the assembly responded with one voice:



“Oh, Prophet (saww) by God! You have!”



Thereupon Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) lifted his fore-finger towards the heaven and then pointing towards people, said:



“O, Lord: Bear Thou witness unto it.”    



632 A.D / 13th Zilhaj, 10th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) returned to Madina.



632 A.D / 11th Hijri:

Delegation from Nakaha came to meet Hazrat Mohemmed (saww). It was the last delegations who met him.



632 A.D / 18th Safar-ul-Muzzaffar, 11th Hijri:

Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) fell ill.



8 June, 632 A.D / Rabi-ul-Awwal, 11th Hijri:

On one of the day of the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal, in 11th year of the Hijrah, when the sun was near its zenith, Rehmat-al-il-Aalameen (A mercy to the universe) Hazrat Mohemmed (saww) passed away at 63  (To Allah (swt)We belong, and to Him is our return) in the home of the favorite of his wives Sayyida Ayesha (RA). Hazrat Mohemmed’s (saww) tomb in the mosque of Madina is venerated throughout Islam.

Hazrat Mohemmed’s (saww) grandson Sayyidna Hassan (RA) composed two couplets in a eulogy of his great grandfather. These couplets are the reflection of every Muslim. Sayyidna Hassan (RA) says:



“No eye has ever seen a better person than thee,

And none more handsome than thee was born to any woman;

Thou wast created free from all defects,

As if thou wast created as thou desired to be created.”



Hazrat Mohemmed’s (saww) bounty did not cease to flow and his blessed mission remained continue. His companions and his followers kept his mission alive. The expansion of his message (Islam) carried on, within a hundred years, its realm extended from Spain to India. Today it is found in every corner of the world, and over one billion people are counted as Muslim, who recite as the foundation of their faith, the words:



“There is no God but Allah,

Mohemmed (saww) is the Messenger of Allah.”    



In the holy Quran Allah (swt) says:



“Allah (swt) and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, and salute him with all respect.” (33:56)



“O Allah (swt)! Send blessings upon Mohemmed and upon the family of Mohemmed as You sent blessings upon Abraham and upon the family of Abraham; indeed, You are praiseworthy and glorious.



O Allah (swt)! Bless Mohemmed and the family of Mohemmed as You blessed Abraham and the family of Abraham: indeed, You are praiseworthy and glorious.”

Source: http://www.aamirliaquat.com/Biography

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